Study Questions for Biomedical Tracers

Radiation and Radiotracers:

  1. Describe the way(s) in which matter may undergo radioactive decay.
  2. Define the differences between x-rays and gamma rays.
  3. What is a half life and how is it computed?
  4. What are the usual units of radiation measurement and how are they  interrelated?
  5. What are the usual methods of minimizing radiation exposure: to particulate radiation; to electromagnetic radiation?
  6. What are the dangers of exposure to radiation, how do they arise, and is there a root cause for such damage?
  7. What methods are normally employed to quantify radiation?  What instruments are used to measure what types of radioisotope?  Why?
Antibodies, Immunoassays, and Immunolocalization:
  1. What are the major features of the structure of gamma class immunoglobulins and how might these be used in employing immunoglobulins as analytical reagents?
  2. What is the process whereby immunoglobulins are generated by the body?  How is this manipulated in vaccination and in the production of monoclonal antibodies?
  3. What are the major features of haptens and antigens?  What limitations do haptens impose on analytical and localization studies?
  4. Compare and contrast competitive and noncompetitive immunoassays.
  5. What kinds of labels can be used as markers for competitive immunoassays?  For noncompetitive assays?
  6. What are the advantages or disadvantages of using a kinetic approach versus an endpoint approach to evaluation of enzyme immunoassay results?  Are these opportunities or limits encountered elsewhere?
  7. What are the key features of assay validation and quality assurance?  How are these features measured and evaluated?  Could these approaches be used in other contexts?
  8. Are there any other molecular interaction systems that share enough major features with antibody-antigen interactions to allow them to be employed in similar ways in qualitative, quantitative, and localization studies?  Is there a lesson for other tracing methods?
  9. What limitations are involved in using antibodies to localize antigenic determinants on preserved tissues or in cell cultures?  Can these be overcome?  If so, how?
  10. What is the role of standards in immunoanalyses?  How are these generated and/or employed?  Is there a lesson for biomedical tracing in general?